Chemical repair (remineralization) of early tooth decay is promoted naturally by saliva. However, this process can be enhanced by various remineralisation agents. Fluoride promotes remineralization, but is limited by bioavailable calcium. Casein phosphopeptide stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is a toothpaste ingredient containing bioavailable calcium that has been widely research to be the most clinically effective remineralization agent that enhances the action of saliva and fluoride. Peptide-based systems, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a variety of calcium phosphates have been advocated as remineralization agents; however, more clinical evidence is required to substantiate their effectiveness.
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